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Oncol Nurs Forum. 2014 Sep;41(5):545-7. doi: 10.1188/14.ONF.545-547.

The use of triangulation in qualitative research.

Author information

1
School of Nursing, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario.
2
School of Nursing and Department of Oncology, McMaster University.
3
School of Nursing and the Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University.
4
School of Nursing, McMaster University.
5
Department of Oncology, Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Canada.

Abstract

Triangulation refers to the use of multiple methods or data sources in qualitative research to develop a comprehensive understanding of phenomena (Patton, 1999). Triangulation also has been viewed as a qualitative research strategy to test validity through the convergence of information from different sources. Denzin (1978) and Patton (1999) identified four types of triangulation: (a) method triangulation, (b) investigator triangulation, (c) theory triangulation, and (d) data source triangulation. The current article will present the four types of triangulation followed by a discussion of the use of focus groups (FGs) and in-depth individual (IDI) interviews as an example of data source triangulation in qualitative inquiry.

KEYWORDS:

focus groups; in-depth individual interviews; qualitative research; triangulation

PMID:
25158659
DOI:
10.1188/14.ONF.545-547
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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