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Connect Tissue Res. 2014 Aug;55 Suppl 1:150-4. doi: 10.3109/03008207.2014.923856.

Amelogenin-chitosan matrix for human enamel regrowth: effects of viscosity and supersaturation degree.

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Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology, Herman Ostrow School of Dentistry, University of Southern California , Los Angeles, CA , USA and.


We recently reported an amelogenin-chitosan (CS-AMEL) hydrogel as a promising biomimetic material for future in situ human enamel regrowth. To further optimize the necessary conditions for clinical applicability of CS-AMEL hydrogel, herein we studied the effects of viscosity and supersaturation degree on the size and orientation of synthetic crystals by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Raising the hydrogel viscosity by increasing chitosan concentration from 1% to 2% (w/v) improved the orientation of the crystals, while a higher supersaturation (σ(HAp) >10.06, [Ca(2+)] >5 mM) resulted in the formation of random crystals with larger sizes and irregular structures. We conclude that optimal conditions to produce organized enamel-like crystals in a CS-AMEL hydrogel are: 2% (w/v) chitosan, 2.5 mM calcium, and 1.5 mM phosphate (degree of supersaturation = 8.23) and 200 µg/ml of amelogenin.


Apatite crystals; amelogenin; chitosan hydrogel; enamel biomimetic; supersaturation

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