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J Insect Physiol. 2014 Nov;70:8-14. doi: 10.1016/j.jinsphys.2014.08.005. Epub 2014 Aug 23.

Host diapause status and host diets augmented with cryoprotectants enhance cold hardiness in the parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis.

Author information

1
Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management in Crops, Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, PR China; USDA-ARS Sino-American Biological Control Laboratory, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, PR China; Departments of Entomology and Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. Electronic address: li.3768@osu.edu.
2
Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management in Crops, Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, PR China; USDA-ARS Sino-American Biological Control Laboratory, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, PR China.
3
Departments of Entomology and Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.
4
Departments of Entomology and Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. Electronic address: Denlinger.1@osu.edu.

Abstract

Boosting cold hardiness in parasitoids is a goal that is particularly attractive for increasing shelf life and shipment of biological control agents. In the experiments reported here we use the parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis as a model to evaluate manipulations that may be capable of enhancing the wasp's cold tolerance. We altered the parasitoid's cold tolerance by manipulating the wasp's diapause status, the diapause status of the host fly (Sarcophaga crassipalpis), and the diet of the host. Larval diapause in N. vitripennis dramatically increased cold tolerance and the diapause status of the host also exerted a positive, although less dramatic, effect. Augmenting the host fly's diet with supplements of putative cryoprotectants (alanine, proline and glycerol) enhanced cold tolerance in parasitoids that fed on the flies, thus indicating a tri-trophic effect on parasitoid cold tolerance. The most pronounced improvement in cold tolerance was noted in parasitoids fed on fly hosts that had received a diet augmented with proline. These results suggest mechanisms that could be exploited for enhancement of cold tolerance in parasitoids of commercial interest.

KEYWORDS:

Alanine; Cold tolerance; Glycerol; Proline; Tritrophic effects

PMID:
25158026
DOI:
10.1016/j.jinsphys.2014.08.005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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