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Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2014 Dec;10(12):740-51. doi: 10.1038/nrrheum.2014.144. Epub 2014 Aug 26.

Modulation of autoimmune rheumatic diseases by oestrogen and progesterone.

Author information

1
Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Box 356428, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.
2
Cincinnati Veterans Administration Medical Center, 3200 Vine Street, Cincinnati, OH 45220, USA.

Abstract

Sexual dimorphism is evident in the risk and expression of several human autoimmune diseases. Differences in disease manifestations observed between sexes are likely to involve immunomodulation by sex steroids, nonhormonal factors encoded by genes on the X and Y chromosomes, and immunological phenomena unique to pregnancy. In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and perhaps other autoantibody-mediated diseases, oestrogen seems to increase the risk of disease in genetically predisposed women by targeting key immune pathways, including the type 1 interferon (IFN) response, differentiation of CD4(+) T helper cells and survival of autoreactive B cells. By contrast, progesterone seems to reduce the risk of SLE by counteracting the effects of oestrogen on some of these same pathways, which suggests that the balance between oestrogen and progesterone can determine disease expression. In this Review we focus on the roles of the sex steroid hormones oestrogen and progesterone in modulating the risk and expression of SLE and rheumatoid arthritis. Intensive research in this area promises to identify novel therapeutic strategies and improve understanding of the immunological requirements and complications of pregnancy, and is expected to define the mechanisms behind sexual dimorphism in autoimmunity, immunity and other aspects of human health--a newly announced directive of the NIH.

PMID:
25155581
DOI:
10.1038/nrrheum.2014.144
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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