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Lancet Respir Med. 2014 Sep;2(9):738-49. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(14)70165-1. Epub 2014 Aug 18.

Aztreonam for inhalation solution in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (AIR-BX1 and AIR-BX2): two randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trials.

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Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA. Electronic address:
Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care & Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Georgetown University, Washington DC, USA.
Departments of Medicine and Pediatrics, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston SC, USA.
Centre for Asthma, Allergy and Respiratory Research, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA, Australia.
Scottsdale Healthcare Shea Medical Center, Scottsdale, AZ, USA.
Department of Pneumology, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.
Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Medical Centre Alkmaar, Alkmaar, Netherlands.
Freeman Hospital Bronchiectasis Service and Transplantation and Immunobiology Group, Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK.
Gilead Sciences Inc., Seattle, WA, USA.
Cardeas Pharma Corp., Seattle, WA, USA.
Department of Psychology and Pediatrics, University of Miami, and Behavioral Health Sciences Research, Coral Gables, FL, USA.



The clinical benefit of inhaled antibiotics in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis has not been established in randomised controlled trials. We aimed to assess safety and efficacy of aztreonam for inhalation solution (AZLI) in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis and Gram-negative bacterial colonisation.


AIR-BX1 and AIR-BX2 were two double-blind, multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 3 trials, which included patients aged 18 years or older who had bronchiectasis and history of positive sputum or bronchoscopic culture for target Gram-negative organisms. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either AZLI or placebo (1:1). Randomisation was done without stratification and the code was generated by a Gilead designee. In both studies, two 4-week courses of AZLI 75 mg or placebo (three-times daily; eFlow nebulizer) were each followed by a 4-week off-treatment period. Primary endpoint was change from baseline Quality of Life-Bronchiectasis Respiratory Symptoms scores (QOL-B-RSS) at 4 weeks. These trials are registered with, numbers are NCT01313624 for AIR-BX1 and NCT01314716 for AIR-BX2.


We recruited participants from 47 ambulatory clinics for AIR-BX1 and 65 ambulatory clinics for AIR-BX2; studies were done between April 25, 2011, and July 1, 2013. In AIR-BX1, of the 348 patients screened, 134 were randomly assigned to receive AZLI and 132 to receive placebo. In AIR-BX2, of the 404 patients screened, 136 were randomly assigned to receive AZLI and 138 to receive placebo. The difference between AZLI and placebo for adjusted mean change from baseline QOL-B-RSS was not significant at 4 weeks (0.8 [95% CI -3.1 to 4.7], p=0.68) in AIR-BX1, but was significant (4.6 [1.1 to 8.2], p=0.011) in AIR-BX2. The 4.6 point difference in QOL-B-RSS after 4 weeks in AIR-BX2 was not deemed clinically significant. In both studies, treatment-related adverse events were more common in the AZLI group than in the placebo group, as were discontinuations from adverse events. The most commonly reported treatment-emergent adverse events were dyspnea, cough, and increased sputum. Each was more common for AZLI-treated than for placebo-treated patients, but the incidences were more balanced in AIR-BX2.


AZLI treatment did not provide significant clinical benefit in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, as measured by QOL-B-RSS, suggesting a continued need for placebo-controlled studies to establish the clinical benefit of inhaled antibiotics in patients with this disorder.


Gilead Sciences.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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