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Chronobiol Int. 2015 Feb;32(1):37-42. doi: 10.3109/07420528.2014.949736. Epub 2014 Aug 25.

Chronotype and time-of-day effects on mood during school day.

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Faculty of Psychology (Work and Individual Differences), Complutense University of Madrid , Madrid , Spain and.


Existing evidence suggests an association between mood, time-of-day and morningness-eveningness (M-E). Since few studies have been carried out among adolescents, in this study daily mood fluctuations were analyzed in the naturalistic school context during 2 d in order to test how chronotype and time-of-day are related to mood during the school schedule period and check if sleep length is involved in the above relation. A sample of 655 adolescents (12-16 years) reported mood levels (current level of pleasantness) three times during school day (8:10-8:30 h, 10:20-11:40 h, 13:50-14:10 h). They also reported M-E preference and time in bed. Neither age nor sex were related to mood. However, the results indicated that regardless of chronotype mood increased throughout the school day from the lowest morning levels. Moreover, morning types showed better mood compared to other chronotypes, while evening types exhibited the lowest mood. Evening-oriented students slept less than other chronotypes, but time in bed was not involved in the relationship between chronotype and mood. These results suggest that it is not shortened sleep duration responsible for decreased mood in evening-oriented students.


Adolescents; affect; chronotype; daily; mood; school day; time-of-day

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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