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Int J Cardiol. 2014 Oct 20;176(3):680-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2014.07.080. Epub 2014 Aug 4.

Vegetarian diet, Seventh Day Adventists and risk of cardiovascular mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Author information

1
Cardiovascular Institute, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK. Electronic address: shingkwok@doctors.org.uk.
2
Central Manchester Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK.
3
School of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, UK.
4
Cardiovascular Institute, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
5
Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Dietary interventions are an important component of cardiovascular risk factor management although their impact on cardiovascular risk and mortality remains uncertain. We have studied influence of a vegetarian diet on cardiovascular risk and mortality.

METHODS:

We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for comparative studies that evaluated clinical outcomes associated with vegetarian diet as compared to non-vegetarian controls or the general population. Relevant studies were pooled using random effects meta-analysis for risk of death, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and cerebrovascular disease. We conducted subgroup analysis according to specific type of cohort (e.g. Seventh Day Adventist [SDA]) and gender.

RESULTS:

Eight studies met the inclusion criteria with 183,321 participants (n=183,321). There was significant heterogeneity in all the meta-analyses, particularly evident with the studies of SDA. In all instances, we found that SDA studies showed greater effect size as compared to non-SDA studies: death (RR 0.68 95% CI 0.45-1.02 vs RR 1.04 95% CI 0.98-1.10), ischaemic heart disease (IHD) (RR 0.60 95% CI 0.43-0.80 vs RR 0.84 95% CI 0.74-0.96) and cerebrovascular disease (RR 0.71 95% CI 0.41-1.20 vs RR 1.05 95% CI 0.89-1.24). Sex specific analyses showed that IHD was significantly reduced in both genders but risk of death and cerebrovascular disease was only significantly reduced in men.

CONCLUSIONS:

Data from observational studies indicates that there is modest cardiovascular benefit, but no clear reduction in overall mortality associated with a vegetarian diet. This evidence of benefit is driven mainly by studies in SDA, whereas the effect of vegetarian diet in other cohorts remains unproven.

KEYWORDS:

Cardiovascular disease; Ischaemic heart disease; Mortality; Stroke; Vegetarian

Comment in

PMID:
25149402
DOI:
10.1016/j.ijcard.2014.07.080
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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