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Mol Cell Biochem. 2014 Dec;397(1-2):245-53. doi: 10.1007/s11010-014-2192-2. Epub 2014 Aug 23.

Nanoceria protects from alterations in oxidative metabolism and calcium overloads induced by TNFα and cycloheximide in U937 cells: pharmacological potential of nanoparticles.

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Department of Physiology, Neuroimmunophysiology and Chrononutrition Research Group, Faculty of Science, University of Extremadura, 06006, Badajoz, Spain,


The present study is aimed to determine the protective effect of a novel nanoparticle with antioxidant properties, nanoceria, on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and calcium signaling evoked by the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) in combination with cycloheximide (CHX) on apoptosis in the human histiocytic lymphoma cell line U937. Our results show that treatment of U937 cells with 10 ng/mL TNFα in combination with 1 μg/mL CHX led to several Ca(2+) alterations. These stimulatory effects on calcium signals were followed by intracellular ROS production and mitochondria membrane depolarization, as well as a time-dependent increase in caspase-8 and -9 activities. Our results show that the pretreatment with well known antioxidants such as trolox and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) partially reduced the apoptotic effects due to the administration of TNFα plus cycloheximide. Furthermore, nanoceria had a stronger protective effect than trolox or NAC. Our findings also suggest that TNFα plus cycloheximide-induced apoptosis is dependent on alterations in cytosolic concentration of calcium [Ca(2+)]c and ROS generation in human histiocytic U937 cells.

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