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Science. 2014 Aug 22;345(6199):950-3. doi: 10.1126/science.1253435. Epub 2014 Aug 21.

Plant genetics. Early allopolyploid evolution in the post-Neolithic Brassica napus oilseed genome.

Author information

1
Institut National de Recherche Agronomique (INRA)/Université d'Evry Val d'Essone, Unité de Recherche en Génomique Végétale, UMR1165, Organization and Evolution of Plant Genomes, 2 rue Gaston Crémieux, 91057 Evry, France. chalhoub@evry.inra.fr.
2
Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Institut de Génomique (IG), Genoscope, BP5706, 91057 Evry, France. Université d'Evry Val d'Essone, UMR 8030, CP5706, Evry, France. Centre National de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), UMR 8030, CP5706, Evry, France.
3
Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops, Ministry of Agriculture of People's Republic of China, Oil Crops Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan 430062, China.
4
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 107 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK S7N 0X2, Canada. chalhoub@evry.inra.fr.
5
J. Craig Venter Institute, Rockville, MD 20850, USA. Center for Genomics and Biotechnology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry, University, Fuzhou 350002, Fujian Province, China.
6
Plant Genome Mapping Laboratory, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA. Center of Genomics and Computational Biology, School of Life Sciences, Hebei United University, Tangshan, Hebei 063000, China.
7
Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Modélisation d'Evry-UMR 8071 CNRS/Université d'Evry val d'Essonne-USC INRA, Evry, France.
8
Institut National de Recherche Agronomique (INRA)/Université d'Evry Val d'Essone, Unité de Recherche en Génomique Végétale, UMR1165, Organization and Evolution of Plant Genomes, 2 rue Gaston Crémieux, 91057 Evry, France.
9
Department of Plant Breeding, Research Center for Biosystems, Land Use and Nutrition, Justus Liebig University, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26-32, 35392 Giessen, Germany.
10
Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Institut de Génomique (IG), Genoscope, BP5706, 91057 Evry, France.
11
INRA, Institut de Génétique, Environnement et Protection des Plantes (IGEPP) UMR1349, BP35327, 35653 Le Rheu Cedex, France.
12
National Research Council Canada, 110 Gymnasium Place, Saskatoon, SK S7N 0W9, Canada.
13
INRA, Etude du Polymorphisme des Génomes Végétaux, US1279, Centre National de Génotypage, CEA-IG, 2 rue Gaston Crémieux, 91057 Evry, France.
14
Plant Genome Mapping Laboratory, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA.
15
Laboratory for Epigenetics and Environment, Centre National de Génotypage, CEA-IG, 2 rue Gaston Crémieux, 91000 Evry, France.
16
Australian Centre for Plant Functional Genomics, School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia.
17
Institut National de Recherche Agronomique (INRA)/Université d'Evry Val d'Essone, Unité de Recherche en Génomique Végétale, UMR1165, Organization and Evolution of Plant Genomes, 2 rue Gaston Crémieux, 91057 Evry, France. Cologne Center for Genomics, University of Cologne, Weyertal 115b, 50931 Köln, Germany.
18
Department of Agronomy, Purdue University, WSLR Building B018, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.
19
Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
20
Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
21
Beijing Genome Institute-Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, China.
22
Fondation Jean Dausset-Centre d'Étude du Polymorphisme Humain, 27 rue Juliette Dodu, 75010 Paris, France.
23
National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.
24
College of Agronomy, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China.
25
Molecular Genetics and Genomics Laboratory, Department of Horticulture, Chungnam National University, Daejeon-305764, South Korea.
26
School of Plant Sciences, iPlant Collaborative, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.
27
J. Craig Venter Institute, Rockville, MD 20850, USA.
28
Department of Biology, University of York, Wentworth Way, Heslington, York YO10 5DD, UK.
29
Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.
30
Division of Biological Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA.
31
Southern Cross Plant Science, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW 2480, Australia.
32
Australian Centre for Plant Functional Genomics, School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia. School of Plant Biology, University of Western Australia, WA 6009, Australia.
33
Australian Centre for Plant Functional Genomics, School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia. School of Plant Biology, University of Western Australia, WA 6009, Australia. chalhoub@evry.inra.fr.
34
National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China. chalhoub@evry.inra.fr.
35
Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops, Ministry of Agriculture of People's Republic of China, Oil Crops Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan 430062, China. chalhoub@evry.inra.fr.
36
National Research Council Canada, 110 Gymnasium Place, Saskatoon, SK S7N 0W9, Canada. chalhoub@evry.inra.fr.
37
Plant Genome Mapping Laboratory, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA. chalhoub@evry.inra.fr.
38
College of Agronomy, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China. chalhoub@evry.inra.fr.
39
Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Institut de Génomique (IG), Genoscope, BP5706, 91057 Evry, France. Université d'Evry Val d'Essone, UMR 8030, CP5706, Evry, France. Centre National de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), UMR 8030, CP5706, Evry, France. chalhoub@evry.inra.fr.

Abstract

Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was formed ~7500 years ago by hybridization between B. rapa and B. oleracea, followed by chromosome doubling, a process known as allopolyploidy. Together with more ancient polyploidizations, this conferred an aggregate 72× genome multiplication since the origin of angiosperms and high gene content. We examined the B. napus genome and the consequences of its recent duplication. The constituent An and Cn subgenomes are engaged in subtle structural, functional, and epigenetic cross-talk, with abundant homeologous exchanges. Incipient gene loss and expression divergence have begun. Selection in B. napus oilseed types has accelerated the loss of glucosinolate genes, while preserving expansion of oil biosynthesis genes. These processes provide insights into allopolyploid evolution and its relationship with crop domestication and improvement.

PMID:
25146293
DOI:
10.1126/science.1253435
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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