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Nat Rev Cancer. 2014 Sep;14(9):581-97. doi: 10.1038/nrc3800.

The impact of the endoplasmic reticulum protein-folding environment on cancer development.

Author information

1
Degenerative Diseases Program, Center for Cancer Research, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, 10901 N. Torrey Pines Rd, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.

Abstract

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an essential organelle in eukaryotic cells for the storage and regulated release of calcium and as the entrance to the secretory pathway. Protein misfolding in the ER causes accumulation of misfolded proteins (ER stress) and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), which has evolved to maintain a productive ER protein-folding environment. Both ER stress and UPR activation are documented in many different human cancers. In this Review, we summarize the impact of ER stress and UPR activation on every aspect of cancer and discuss outstanding questions for which answers will pave the way for therapeutics.

PMID:
25145482
DOI:
10.1038/nrc3800
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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