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J Vet Intern Med. 2014 Sep-Oct;28(5):1551-9. doi: 10.1111/jvim.12421. Epub 2014 Aug 21.

Chiari-like malformation and syringomyelia in American Brussels Griffon dogs.

Author information

1
Animal Health Trust, Centre for Small Animal Studies, Newmarket, Suffolk, UK.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Although Chiari-like malformation (CM) and syringomyelia (SM) have been described in many small breed dogs, the prevalence and clinical manifestations of this complex have not been documented in a large cohort of American Brussels Griffon (ABG) dogs.

OBJECTIVES:

To characterize the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of CM and SM in the ABG breed.

ANIMALS:

Eighty-four American Kennel Club registered ABG dogs were recruited.

METHODS:

Prospective study. Complete histories and neurologic examinations were obtained before MRI. Images were blindly reviewed and calculations were made by using OsiriX. All analyses were performed by Student's t-test, Spearman's correlation, ANOVA, and chi-square test where appropriate.

RESULTS:

Chiari-like malformation and SM were present in 65% and 52% of dogs, respectively. Twenty-eight percent of dogs had neurologic deficits and 20% had neck pain. Mean central canal (CC) transverse height was 2.5 mm with a mean length of 3.6 cervical vertebrae. Neurologic deficits were significantly associated with a larger syrinx (P = .04, P = .08) and syrinx size increased with age (P = .027). SM was associated with a smaller craniocervical junction (CCJ) height (P = .04) and larger ventricles (P = .0001; P < .001).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE:

Syringomyelia and CM are prevalent in American Brussels Griffon dogs. Syrinx size is associated with neurologic deficits, CM, larger ventricles, a smaller craniocervical junction height, neurologic deficits, and cerebellar herniation. Fifty-two percent of dogs with a SM were clinically normal.

KEYWORDS:

Central canal; Foramen magnum; Magnetic resonance imaging; Syrinx

PMID:
25145262
PMCID:
PMC4895564
DOI:
10.1111/jvim.12421
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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