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Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014 Nov;23(11):2532-42. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-0613. Epub 2014 Aug 20.

Prolactin determinants in healthy women: A large cross-sectional study within the EPIC cohort.

Author information

1
Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany. k.tikk@dkfz.de.
2
Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.
3
Nutrition, Hormones, and Women's Health Team, Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health (CESP), INSERM U1018, Villejuif, France. Univ Paris Sud, UMRS 1018, Villejuif, France. IGR, Villejuif, France.
4
Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark.
5
Section for Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
6
Cancer Epidemiology Centre, Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Australia. Centre for Molecular, Environmental, Genetic, and Analytic Epidemiology, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
7
Section of Nutrition and Metabolism, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon, France.
8
Department of Epidemiology, German Institute of Human Nutrition (DIfE), Nuthetal, Germany.
9
Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology, and Medical Statistics, University of Athens Medical School, Athens, Greece. Hellenic Health Foundation, Athens, Greece.
10
Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology, and Medical Statistics, University of Athens Medical School, Athens, Greece. Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts. Bureau of Epidemiologic Research, Academy of Athens, Athens, Greece.
11
Hellenic Health Foundation, Athens, Greece. Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts. Bureau of Epidemiologic Research, Academy of Athens, Athens, Greece.
12
Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, Cancer Research and Prevention Institute-ISPO, Florence, Italy.
13
Epidemiology and Prevention Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milano, Italy.
14
Cancer Registry and Histopathology Unit, "Civic-M.P.Arezzo" Hospital ASP, Ragusa, Italy.
15
Center for Cancer Prevention (CPO-Piemonte), Torino, Italy. Human Genetic Foundation (HuGeF), Torino, Italy.
16
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Federico II University, Naples, Italy.
17
Unit of Nutrition, Environment, and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Programme, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO-IDIBELL), Barcelona, Spain.
18
Public Health Directorate, Asturias, Spain.
19
Escuela Andaluza de Salud Pública, Instituto de Investigación Biosanitario de Granada, Granada, Spain. Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.
20
Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain. Basque Regional Health Department, Public Health Division of Gipuzkoa, San Sebastian, Spain.
21
Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain. Department of Epidemiology, Murcia Regional Health Authority, Murcia, Spain.
22
Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain. Navarre Public Health Institute, Pamplona, Spain.
23
National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, the Netherlands. Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medical Centre, Utrecht, the Netherlands. School of Public Health, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom.
24
Department of Epidemiology, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center, Utrecht, the Netherlands.
25
Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
26
Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
27
Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway. Department of Research, Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo, Norway. Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Samfundet Folkhälsan, Helsinki, Finland.
28
Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.
29
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.
30
School of Clinical Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
31
Cancer Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
32
School of Public Health, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Experimental and epidemiologic data suggest that higher circulating prolactin is associated with breast cancer risk; however, how various risk factors for breast cancer influence prolactin levels in healthy women is not clear.

METHODS:

We analyzed cross-sectional associations between several suggested reproductive and lifestyle risk factors for breast cancer and circulating prolactin among pre- and postmenopausal women, taking into account the use of current postmenopausal hormone therapy, among 2,560 controls from a breast cancer nested case-control study within the EPIC cohort.

RESULTS:

Adjusted geometric mean prolactin levels were significantly higher among premenopausal women, and among postmenopausal women using hormone therapy compared with nonusers (8.2, 7.0, and 6.3 ng/mL, respectively; Pcat = <0.0001). Furthermore, prolactin levels were significantly higher among users of combined estrogen-progestin hormone therapy compared with users of estrogen-alone hormone therapy (6.66 vs. 5.90 ng/mL; Pcat = 0.001). Prolactin levels were lower among parous women compared with nulliparous women (8.61 vs. 10.95 ng/mL; Pcat = 0.0002, premenopausal women); the magnitude of this difference depended on the number of full-term pregnancies (22.1% lower, ≥3 vs. 1 pregnancy, Ptrend = 0.01). Results for parity were similar but lower in magnitude among postmenopausal women. Prolactin did not vary by other studied factors, with the exception of lower levels among postmenopausal smokers compared with never smokers.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our study shows that current hormone therapy use, especially the use of combined hormone therapy, is associated with higher circulating prolactin levels in postmenopausal women, and confirms prior findings of lower circulating prolactin in parous women.

IMPACT:

Our study extends the knowledge linking various breast cancer risk factors with circulating prolactin.

PMID:
25143360
DOI:
10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-0613
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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