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Sleep. 2014 Sep 1;37(9):1535-42. doi: 10.5665/sleep.4006.

Periodic leg movements during sleep are associated with polymorphisms in BTBD9, TOX3/BC034767, MEIS1, MAP2K5/SKOR1, and PTPRD.

Abstract

STUDY OBJECTIVES:

To examine association between periodic leg movements (PLM) and 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 6 loci known to increase risk of restless legs syndrome (RLS).

SETTING:

Stanford Center for Sleep Sciences and Medicine and Clinical Research Unit of University of Wisconsin Institute for Clinical and Translational Research.

PATIENTS:

Adult participants (n = 1,090, mean age = 59.7 years) from the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort (2,394 observations, 2000-2012).

DESIGN AND INTERVENTIONS:

A previously validated automatic detector was used to measure PLMI. Thirteen SNPs within BTBD9, TOX3/BC034767, MEIS1 (2 unlinked loci), MAP2K5/SKOR1, and PTPRD were tested. Analyses were performed using a linear model and by PLM category using a 15 PLM/h cutoff. Statistical significance for loci was Bonferroni corrected for 6 loci (P < 8.3 × 10(-3)). RLS symptoms were categorized into four groups: likely, possible, no symptoms, and unknown based on a mailed survey response.

MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS:

Prevalence of PLMI ≥ 15 was 33%. Subjects with PLMs were older, more likely to be male, and had more frequent RLS symptoms, a shorter total sleep time, and higher wake after sleep onset. Strong associations were found at all loci except one. Highest associations for PLMI > 15/h were obtained using a multivariate model including age, sex, sleep disturbances, and the best SNPs for each loci, yielding the following odds ratios (OR) and P values: BTBD9 rs3923809(A) OR = 1.65, P = 1.5×10(-8); TOX3/BC034767 rs3104788(T) OR = 1.35, P = 9.0 × 10(-5); MEIS1 rs12469063(G) OR = 1.38, P = 2.0 × 10(-4); MAP2K5/SKOR1 rs6494696(G) OR = 1.24, P = 1.3×10(-2); and PTPRD(A) rs1975197 OR = 1.31, P = 6.3×10(-3). Linear regression models also revealed significant PLM effects for BTBD9, TOX3/BC034767, and MEIS1. Co-varying for RLS symptoms only modestly reduced the genetic associations.

CONCLUSIONS:

Single nucleotide polymorphisms demonstrated to increase risk of RLS are strongly linked to increased PLM as well, although some loci may have more effects on one versus the other phenotype.

KEYWORDS:

Wisconsin Sleep Cohort; genetics; periodic leg movements; polysomnography; restless legs syndrome

PMID:
25142570
PMCID:
PMC4153066
DOI:
10.5665/sleep.4006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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