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Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014 Nov;58(11):6484-9. doi: 10.1128/AAC.03344-14. Epub 2014 Aug 18.

Changes in pneumococcal serotypes and antimicrobial resistance after introduction of the 13-valent conjugate vaccine in the United States.

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Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa, USA.


Ongoing surveillance for Streptococcus pneumoniae is needed to assess the impact of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduced in 2010 (PCV13). Forty-two U.S. centers submitted S. pneumoniae isolates between 1 October 2012 and 31 March 2013. Susceptibility testing was performed by use of a broth dilution method as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Serotyping was performed by multiplex PCR and the Quellung reaction. Multidrug resistance (MDR) was defined as nonsusceptibility to penicillin (PNSP; MIC ≥ 0.12 μg/ml) combined with resistance to ≥2 non-β-lactam antimicrobials. Penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP) was defined as a penicillin MIC of ≥2 μg/ml. For the 1,498 isolates collected during 2012-13, the PRSP and MDR rates were 14.2 and 21.0%, respectively. These percentages were lower than rates obtained in a surveillance study conducted 4 years earlier in 2008-09 (17.0 and 26.6%, respectively). The most common serotypes identified in 2012-13 were 3, 35B, and 19A, each representing 9 to 10% of all isolates. The largest percentage of PNSP in 2012-13 were found in serotypes 35B (24.8%), 19A (23.5%), and 15A (10.3%). Predominant PRSP serotypes were 19A (54.5%), 35B (28.2%), and 19F (7.0%). Major MDR serotypes were 19A (38.5%), 15A (16.9%), 6C (8.3%), and 35B (6.4%). The change in prevalence of PCV13 serotypes (43.4 to 27.1%) was primarily due to a decrease in serotype 19A strains, i.e., 22% of all strains in 2008-09 to 10% of all strains in 2012-13. Among the PNSP subset, serotypes showing a proportional increase were 35B, 15B, and 23B. Among MDR strains, the largest proportional increases were observed in serotypes 35B, 15B, and 23A.

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