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J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2014 Aug;34(4):608-11. doi: 10.1007/s11596-014-1324-y. Epub 2014 Aug 19.

Calcium hydroxide removal in curved root canals with apical transportation In Vitro.

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State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, China,


Calcium hydroxide (CH) is applied to improve disinfection of root canals in most root canal retreatment. This study aimed to analyze the CH removal efficacy using 7 different root preparing files (K file, pre-curved K file, EndoActivator, Ultrasonic file, pre-curved ultrasonic file, F file and needle irrigation alone) with apical transportation. Standardized models of curved canal with such apical transportation or not were set up before applying CH to root canal for 7 days. Seven techniques described above were used for its removal. Then the roots were disassembled and digital photos were taken. The ratio of residual CH in the overall canal surface was calculated using the image analyzer image pro plus 6.0. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey test. Results revealed that CH was effectively removed (P<0.05) by using all 6 mechanical methods except irrigation alone. In curved root canals with apical transportation, EndoActivator, pre-curved ultrasonic file and F file were found to be more effective in removing CH than the other four file (P<0.001), while there was no significant difference among EndoActivator, pre-curved ultrasonic file and F file groups (P>0.05). The percentage of residual CH in the canal with apical transportation was higher than that in the canal without apical transportation (P<0.05). In conclusion, CH can be hardly removed completely. Canal with apical transportation will result in insufficient CH removal. EndoActivator, pre-curved ultrasonic file and F file are more effective in the curved root canal with apical transportation.

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