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Pain Ther. 2013 Jun;2(1):21-36. doi: 10.1007/s40122-013-0006-y. Epub 2013 Feb 12.

Myofascial pain syndrome: a treatment review.

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Pain Medicine and Non-Operative Spine Services, The George Washington University Medical Center, 2131K Street, NW Washington, DC, 20037, USA,


Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is defined as pain that originates from myofascial trigger points in skeletal muscle. It is prevalent in regional musculoskeletal pain syndromes, either alone or in combination with other pain generators. The appropriate evaluation and management of myofascial pain is an important part of musculoskeletal rehabilitation, and regional axial and limb pain syndromes. This article reviews the current hypotheses regarding the treatment modalities for myofascial trigger points and muscle pain. Through a critical evidence-based review of the pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments, the authors aim to provide clinicians with a more comprehensive knowledge of the interventions for myofascial pain.

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