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BMC Res Notes. 2014 Aug 18;7:544. doi: 10.1186/1756-0500-7-544.

Factors associated with genital human papillomavirus infection among adult females in the United States, NHANES 2007-2010.

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Department of Medicine, Feist-Weiller Cancer Center, LSU Health Shreveport, Shreveport, LA, USA.



Patients with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection are at risk of developing cancer later in their life. Current research estimates the prevalence of genital HPV infection and explores the factors that are associated with the infection.


The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010 was used in this research study. The study population included females in the United States aged 18-59 years. The weighted prevalence of HPV infection was 41.9%. An estimated 59.4% of non-Hispanic black females had HPV infection. In a multivariate analysis, number of sexual partners, race, age, education level, marital status, income, smoking, and insurance status were associated with HPV infection. HPV infection was 5.77 times more likely for women with >11 sexual partners compared to women with 0-1 partners. Non-Hispanic black females were 1.87 times more likely to have HPV infection compared to non-Hispanic white females. Participants with only a high school degree had a 58% increased prevalence compared to college-educated women. Uninsured women had a 39% increased prevalence compared to those with insurance.


This study found that 41.9% of U.S. females aged 18-59 years tested positive for genital HPV infection. We determined that individuals with more sexual partners, with a lower education level, with non-Hispanic black race, and with no insurance were the populations at greatest risk. It is necessary to continue monitoring the prevalence of this infection in the general population to provide a basis for effective treatment and prevention in the target populations.

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