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Nat Commun. 2014 Aug 19;5:4687. doi: 10.1038/ncomms5687.

Interplay between phosphorylation and SUMOylation events determines CESTA protein fate in brassinosteroid signalling.

Author information

1
1] Biotechnology of Horticultural Crops, TUM School of Life Sciences Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, D-85354 Freising, Germany [2] Max F. Perutz Laboratories, University of Vienna, A-1030 Vienna, Austria.
2
Biotechnology of Horticultural Crops, TUM School of Life Sciences Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, D-85354 Freising, Germany.
3
Department of Molecular Systems Biology, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna, Austria.
4
Max F. Perutz Laboratories, University of Vienna, A-1030 Vienna, Austria.
5
Plant Growth Regulation, TUM School of Life Sciences Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, D-85354 Freising, Germany.
6
Plant Systems Biology, TUM School of Life Sciences Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, D-85354 Freising, Germany.

Abstract

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroid hormones that are essential for plant growth. Responses to these hormones are mediated by transcription factors of the bri1-EMS suppressor 1/brassinazole resistant 1 subfamily, and BRs activate these factors by impairing their inhibitory phosphorylation by GSK3/shaggy-like kinases. Here we show that BRs induce nuclear compartmentalization of CESTA (CES), a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that regulates BR responses, and reveal that this process is regulated by CES SUMOylation. We demonstrate that CES contains an extended SUMOylation motif, and that SUMOylation of this motif is antagonized by phosphorylation to control CES subnuclear localization. Moreover, we provide evidence that phosphorylation regulates CES transcriptional activity and protein turnover by the proteasome. A coordinated modification model is proposed in which, in a BR-deficient situation, CES is phosphorylated to activate target gene transcription and enable further posttranslational modification that controls CES protein stability and nuclear dynamics.

PMID:
25134617
PMCID:
PMC4167607
DOI:
10.1038/ncomms5687
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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