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Protein Sci. 2014 Nov;23(11):1550-8. doi: 10.1002/pro.2532. Epub 2014 Aug 23.

Trypsinogen activation as observed in accelerated molecular dynamics simulations.

Author information

1
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California.

Abstract

Serine proteases are involved in many fundamental physiological processes, and control of their activity mainly results from the fact that they are synthetized in an inactive form that becomes active upon cleavage. Three decades ago Martin Karplus's group performed the first molecular dynamics simulations of trypsin, the most studied member of the serine protease family, to address the transition from the zymogen to its active form. Based on the computational power available at the time, only high frequency fluctuations, but not the transition steps, could be observed. By performing accelerated molecular dynamics (aMD) simulations, an interesting approach that increases the configurational sampling of atomistic simulations, we were able to observe the N-terminal tail insertion, a crucial step of the transition mechanism. Our results also support the hypothesis that the hydrophobic effect is the main force guiding the insertion step, although substantial enthalpic contributions are important in the activation mechanism. As the N-terminal tail insertion is a conserved step in the activation of serine proteases, these results afford new perspective on the underlying thermodynamics of the transition from the zymogen to the active enzyme.

KEYWORDS:

GIST; MD; aMD; accelerated molecular dynamics; molecular dynamics; solvation; trypsin; trypsinogen

PMID:
25131668
PMCID:
PMC4241106
DOI:
10.1002/pro.2532
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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