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Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2014 Oct;5(6):962-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ttbdis.2014.07.019. Epub 2014 Aug 12.

Survival dynamics of tick-borne encephalitis virus in Ixodes ricinus ticks.

Author information

1
Institute of Zoology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia.
2
Institute of Virology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia.
3
Institute of Virology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia; Institute of Virology, Charité Medical School, Berlin, Germany.
4
School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom.
5
Unité des Virus Emergents, Faculté de Médecine de Marseille, Aix-Marseille Universite, France; NERC Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom.
6
NERC Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom; Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, United Kingdom. Electronic address: pat.nuttall@zoo.ox.ac.uk.

Abstract

Biotic factors contributing to the survival of tick-borne viruses in nature are poorly understood. Using tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and its principal European vector, Ixodes ricinus, we examined the relative roles of salivary gland infection, co-feeding transmission, and moulting in virus survival. Virus titres in the salivary glands increased after blood-feeding in a time- and dose-dependent manner. This was observed in ticks infected by inoculation but not in ticks infected by the natural route of co-feeding. Amplification of infection prevalence occurred via co-feeding. However, when larvae or nymphs subsequently moulted, the infection prevalence dramatically declined although this was not observed when ticks were infected by inoculation. Trans-stadial survival is a hitherto overlooked parameter that may contribute to the low incidence of TBEV infection in field-collected I. ricinus ticks.

KEYWORDS:

Co-feeding transmission; Ixodes ricinus; Salivary glands; TBEV; Trans-stadial survival

PMID:
25131151
DOI:
10.1016/j.ttbdis.2014.07.019
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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