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Exp Cell Res. 2014 Nov 1;328(2):258-66. doi: 10.1016/j.yexcr.2014.08.009. Epub 2014 Aug 14.

PAR polarity: from complexity to design principles.

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Cancer Research UK London Research Institute, 44 Lincoln׳s Inn Fields, London WC2A 3LY, UK; MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK. Electronic address:


The par-titioning-defective or PAR proteins comprise the core of an essential cell polarity network that underlies polarization in a wide variety of cell types and developmental contexts. The output of this network in nearly every case is the establishment of opposing and complementary membrane domains that define a cell׳s polarity axis. Yet, behind this simple pattern is a complex system of interactions, regulation and dynamic behaviors. How these various parts combine to generate polarized patterns of protein localization in cells is only beginning to become clear. This review, part of the Special Issue on Cell Polarity, aims to highlight several emerging themes and design principles that underlie the process of cell polarization by components of the PAR network.


Cell polarity; Feedback; Modeling; Networks

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