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J Neurophysiol. 2014 Nov 1;112(9):2147-63. doi: 10.1152/jn.00207.2014. Epub 2014 Aug 13.

Adaptation of high-gamma responses in human auditory association cortex.

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Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania;
Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; and.
Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.
Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; and


This study investigates adaptation of high-frequency cortical responses [>60 Hz; high-gamma (HG)] to simple and complex sounds in human nonprimary auditory cortex. We used intracranial electrocorticographic recordings to measure event-related changes in HG power as a function of stimulus probability. Tone and speech stimuli were presented in a series of traditional oddball and control paradigms. We hypothesized that HG power attenuates with stimulus repetition over multiple concurrent time scales in auditory association cortex. Time-frequency analyses were performed to identify auditory-responsive sites. Single-trial analyses and quantitative modeling were then used to measure trial-to-trial changes in HG power for high (frequent), low (infrequent), and equal (control) stimulus probabilities. Results show strong reduction of HG responses to frequently repeated tones and speech, with no differences in responses to infrequent and equal-probability stimuli. Adaptation of the HG frequent response, and not stimulus-acoustic differences or deviance-detection enhancement effects, accounted for the differential responses observed for frequent and infrequent sounds. Adaptation of HG responses showed a rapid onset (less than two trials) with slower adaptation between consecutive, repeated trials (2-10 s) and across trials in a stimulus block (∼7 min). The auditory-evoked N100 response also showed repetition-related adaptation, consistent with previous human scalp and animal single-unit recordings. These findings indicate that HG responses are highly sensitive to the regularities of simple and complex auditory events and show adaptation on multiple concurrent time scales in human auditory association cortex.


adaptation; auditory cortex; deviance detection; electrocorticography; gamma; oddball

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