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PLoS One. 2014 Aug 13;9(8):e102446. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102446. eCollection 2014.

The prevalence of workaholism: a survey study in a nationally representative sample of Norwegian employees.

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Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; The Competence Center, Bergen Clinics Foundation, Bergen, Norway.
Psychology Division, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
Department FISPPA - Section of Applied Psychology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.


Workaholism has become an increasingly popular area for empirical study. However, most studies examining the prevalence of workaholism have used non-representative samples and measures with poorly defined cut-off scores. To overcome these methodological limitations, a nationally representative survey among employees in Norway (N = 1,124) was conducted. Questions relating to gender, age, marital status, caretaker responsibility for children, percentage of full-time equivalent, and educational level were asked. Workaholism was assessed by the use of a psychometrically validated instrument (i.e., Bergen Work Addiction Scale). Personality was assessed using the Mini-International Personality Item Pool. Results showed that the prevalence of workaholism was 8.3% (95% CI  = 6.7-9.9%). An adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that workaholism was negatively related to age and positively related to the personality dimensions agreeableness, neuroticism, and intellect/imagination. Implications for these findings are discussed.

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