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Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014 Dec;68(12):1277-87. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2014.158. Epub 2014 Aug 13.

Effect of maternal n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy and/or lactation on adiposity in childhood: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Author information

1
1] NUTRIM, School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, and the Section of Complex Genetics, NUTRIM, Department of Genetics and Cell Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands [2] Department of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece.
2
NUTRIM, School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, and the Section of Complex Genetics, NUTRIM, Department of Genetics and Cell Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
3
Department of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece.

Abstract

It is hypothesized that prenatal and early postnatal exposure to n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) is negatively associated with adiposity later in life. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate whether maternal n-3 LCPUFA supplementation in pregnancy and/or lactation exerts a beneficial effect on adiposity status in childhood. We searched six electronic databases till 20 May 2014 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation to pregnant and/or lactating women that reported data on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, sum of skinfold thicknesses or body fat mass in children. Adiposity measures were grouped into three age categories: preschool children (<5 years), school-aged children (6-12 years), and adolescents (>13 years). Trial quality was assessed. We conducted fixed-effect and random-effects meta-analyses to combine study-specific estimates of differences between the supplemented and control groups. A total of 6 RCTs (9 publications) involving 2847 participants were included. Summary estimates showed no effect of maternal supplementation on BMI in preschool (standardized mean difference (SMD)=0.07, 95% confidence interval (CI)=-0.22, 0.36, P=0.65) and school-aged children (SMD=0.12, 95% CI=-0.06, 0.30, P=0.20). Because of sparse data, it was not possible to pool study results relating to other adiposity measures. There is currently no evidence to support that n-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy and/or lactation favourably affects child adiposity. Further high-quality trials are needed.

PMID:
25117991
DOI:
10.1038/ejcn.2014.158
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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