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Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014 Nov;68(11):1258-60. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2014.159. Epub 2014 Aug 13.

Timing of complementary food introduction and age at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes: the SEARCH nutrition ancillary study (SNAS).

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Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, USA.
Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Public Health and School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
Sansum Diabetes Research Institute, Santa Barbara, CA, USA.
Cincinnati Children's Hospital, The University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
John A Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Kaukini Medical Center, Honolulu, HI, USA.
Center for Clinical and Translational Research, Division of Endocrinology, Seattle Children's Research Institute and University of Washington School of Nursing, Seattle, WA, USA.


The association between timing of complementary food introduction and age at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes was investigated among 1077 children in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Age at diagnosis was 5 months earlier for children introduced to sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) in the first 12 months of life compared with those who were not (9.0±0.2 vs 9.5±0.1; P=0.02) independent of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) risk status. Analyses stratified by HLA risk status found that children with a high-risk HLA genotype had an earlier age at diagnosis if they were introduced to fruit juice in the first year of life (mean age at diagnosis=9.3±0.1, 9.1±0.1 and 9.6±0.2 for introduction at ⩽6 months, between 7 and 11 months and ⩾12 months, respectively; P=0.04). Introduction of SSB in the first year of life may accelerate the onset of type 1 diabetes independent of HLA risk status.

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