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Chemistry. 2014 Sep 15;20(38):11999-2003. doi: 10.1002/chem.201403833. Epub 2014 Aug 12.

Enhanced thermal oxidation stability of reduced graphene oxide by nitrogen doping.

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Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain), Fax: (+34) 935 805 729.


Nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-doped RGO) samples with a high level of doping, up to 13 wt. %, have been prepared by annealing graphene oxide under a flow of pure ammonia. The presence of nitrogen within the structure of RGO induces a remarkable increase in the thermal stability against oxidation by air. The thermal stability is closely related with the temperature of synthesis and the nitrogen content. The combustion reaction of nitrogen in different coordination environments (pyridinic, pyrrolic, and graphitic) is analyzed against a graphene fragment (undoped) from a thermodynamic point of view. In agreement with the experimental observations, the combustion of undoped graphene turns out to be more spontaneous than when nitrogen atoms are present.


ammonia; doping; enthalpy; graphene; thermal stability


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