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J Hum Kinet. 2014 Jul 8;41:59-70. doi: 10.2478/hukin-2014-0033. eCollection 2014 Jun 28.

Effectiveness of Selected Fitness Exercises on Stress of Femoral Neck using Musculoskeletal Dynamics Simulations and Finite Element Model.

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Department of Sport Science, Nanjing Sport Institute, Nanjing, China.
Department of Engineering Mechanics, Southeast University, Nanjing, China.
Biomechanics/Sports Medicine Lab, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN.


The purpose of the study was to establish a dynamics model and a three-dimensional (3D) finite element model to analyze loading characteristics of femoral neck during walking, squat, single-leg standing, and forward and lateral lunges. One male volunteer performed three trials of the five movements. The 3D kinematic data were captured and imported into the LifeMOD to establish a musculoskeletal dynamics model to obtain joint reaction and muscle forces of iliacus, gluteus medius, gluteus maximus, psoas major and adductor magnus. The loading data LfeMOD were imported and transformed into a hip finite-element model. The results of the finite element femur model showed that stress was localized along the compression arc and the tension arc. In addition, the trabecular bone and tension lines of the Ward's triangle also demonstrated high stress. The compact bone received the greatest peak stress in the forward lunge and the least stress in the squat. However, the spongy bone in the femoral neck region had the greatest stress during the walk and the least stress in the squat. The results from this study indicate that the forward lunge may be an effective method to prevent femoral neck fractures. Walking is another effective and simple method that may improve bone mass of the Ward's triangle and prevent osteoporosis and femoral neck fracture.


LifeMOD; compression; exercise; femoral neck fracture; finite-element model; tension

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