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Health Serv Insights. 2013 Aug 4;6:61-8. doi: 10.4137/HSI.S11093. eCollection 2013.

Patient-Reported Outcomes (PROs) and Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs).

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Research Nurse, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, Fulham Road, London SW10 9NH, United Kingdom.
Director, Family and Community Health University Research Group, School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Western Sydney, Sydney, NSW Australia. ; Visiting Professor, Centre for Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Imperial College, Chelsea and Westminster Campus, London, SW10 9NH, United Kingdom.


In recent years, there has been an increased focus on placing patients at the center of health care research and evaluating clinical care in order to improve their experience and ensure that research is both robust and of maximum value for the use of medicinal products, therapy, or health services. This paper provides an overview of patients' involvement in clinical research and service evaluation along with its benefits and limitations. We describe and discuss patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), including the trends in current research. Both the patient-reported experiences measures (PREMs) and patient and public involvement (PPI) initiative for including patients in the research processes are also outlined. PROs provide reports from patients about their own health, quality of life, or functional status associated with the health care or treatment they have received. PROMs are tools and/or instruments used to report PROs. Patient report experiences through the use of PREMs, such as satisfaction scales, providing insight into the patients' experience with their care or a health service. There is increasing international attention regarding the use of PREMS as a quality indicator of patient care and safety. This reflects the ongoing health service commitment of involving patients and the public within the wider context of the development and evaluation of health care service delivery and quality improvement.


clinical research; patient experience; patient reported measures; patient reported outcomes

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