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Magn Reson Insights. 2014 Jun 5;7:15-21. doi: 10.4137/MRI.S13145. eCollection 2014.

In vivo monitoring of natural killer cell trafficking during tumor immunotherapy.

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Biology and Biological Engineering, Beckman Institute, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA.


Natural killer (NK) cells are a crucial part of the innate immune system and play critical roles in host anti-viral, anti-microbial, and antitumor responses. The elucidation of NK cell biology and their therapeutic use are actively being pursued with 200 clinical trials currently underway. In this review, we outline the role of NK cells in cancer immunotherapies and summarize current noninvasive imaging technologies used to track NK cells in vivo to investigate mechanisms of action, develop new therapies, and evaluate efficacy of adoptive transfer.


MRI; PET imaging; cell tracking; immunotherapy; natural killer cells; optical imaging

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