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J Exp Bot. 2014 Oct;65(19):5631-42. doi: 10.1093/jxb/eru319. Epub 2014 Aug 11.

Nitrogen signalling in plant interactions with associative and endophytic diazotrophic bacteria.

Author information

1
Laboratório de Biologia Molecular de Plantas, Instituto de Bioquímica Médica Leopoldo de Meis, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941-590, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
2
Laboratório de Biologia Molecular de Plantas, Instituto de Bioquímica Médica Leopoldo de Meis, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941-590, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil hemerly@bioqmed.ufrj.br.

Abstract

Some beneficial plant-interacting bacteria can biologically fix N2 to plant-available ammonium. Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is an important source of nitrogen (N) input in agriculture and represents a promising substitute for chemical N fertilizers. Diazotrophic bacteria have the ability to develop different types of root associations with different plant species. Among the highest rates of BNF are those measured in legumes nodulated by endosymbionts, an already very well documented model of plant-diazotrophic bacterial association. However, it has also been shown that economically important crops, especially monocots, can obtain a substantial part of their N needs from BNF by interacting with associative and endophytic diazotrophic bacteria, that either live near the root surface or endophytically colonize intercellular spaces and vascular tissues of host plants. One of the best reported outcomes of this association is the promotion of plant growth by direct and indirect mechanisms. Besides fixing N, these bacteria can also produce plant growth hormones, and some species are reported to improve nutrient uptake and increase plant tolerance against biotic and abiotic stresses. Thus, this particular type of plant-bacteria association consists of a natural beneficial system to be explored; however, the regulatory mechanisms involved are still not clear. Plant N status might act as a key signal, regulating and integrating various metabolic processes that occur during association with diazotrophic bacteria. This review will focus on the recent progress in understanding plant association with associative and endophytic diazotrophic bacteria, particularly on the knowledge of the N networks involved in BNF and in the promotion of plant growth.

KEYWORDS:

Associative bacteria; biological nitrogen fixation; diazotrophic bacteria; endophytic bacteria; nitrogen signalling; plant growth promotion.

PMID:
25114015
DOI:
10.1093/jxb/eru319
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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