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Environ Int. 2014 Dec;73:117-27. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2014.07.017. Epub 2014 Aug 9.

A semi-probabilistic modelling approach for the estimation of dietary exposure to phthalates in the Belgian adult population.

Author information

1
Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol, Belgium; Ghent University, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium. Electronic address: tine.fierens@vito.be.
2
Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol, Belgium.
3
Ghent University, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium; Research Foundation Flanders (FWO), Egmontstraat 5, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium.
4
Ghent University, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium; University College Ghent, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Care "Vesalius", Keramiekstraat 80, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
5
Ghent University, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.

Abstract

In this study, a semi-probabilistic modelling approach was applied for the estimation of the long-term human dietary exposure to phthalates--one of world's most used families of plasticisers. Four phthalate compounds were considered: diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Intake estimates were calculated for the Belgian adult population and several subgroups of this population for two considered scenarios using an extended version of the EN-forc model. The highest intake rates were found for DEHP, followed by DnBP, BBP and DEP. In the Belgian adult population, men and young adults generally had the highest dietary phthalate intake estimates. Nevertheless, predicted dietary intake rates for all four investigated phthalates were far below the corresponding tolerable daily intake (TDI) values (i.e. P99 intake values were 6.4% of the TDI at most), which is reassuring because adults are also exposed to phthalates via other contamination pathways (e.g. dust ingestion and inhalation). The food groups contributing most to the dietary exposure were grains and grain-based products for DEP, milk and dairy products for DnBP, meat and meat products or grains and grain-based products (depending on the scenario) for BBP and meat and meat products for DEHP. Comparison of the predicted intake results based on modelled phthalate concentrations in food products with intake estimates from other surveys (mostly based on measured concentrations) showed that the extended version of the EN-forc model is a suitable semi-probabilistic tool for the estimation and evaluation of the long-term dietary intake of phthalates in humans.

KEYWORDS:

Adults; Belgium; Dietary exposure assessment; EN-forc model; Phthalates; Semi-probabilistic modelling approach

PMID:
25113625
DOI:
10.1016/j.envint.2014.07.017
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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