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Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2014 Oct;106(1):145-53. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2014.07.007. Epub 2014 Jul 22.

Instant coffee consumption may be associated with higher risk of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.

Author information

1
Department of Food and Nutrition, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk, Republic of Korea.
2
College of Veterinary Medicine and Research Institute for Veterinary Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
3
Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
4
Department of Food and Nutrition, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: kypark@ynu.ac.kr.

Abstract

AIMS:

Cumulative evidence suggests that coffee consumption may have beneficial effects on metabolic diseases; however, few previous studies have considered the types of coffee consumed and the additives used. We investigated the relationship between coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) and its components.

METHODS:

We analyzed 17,953 Korean adults, aged 19-65 years, using cross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2007-2011). Coffee consumption level, types of coffee consumed, and the additives used were assessed based on a food frequency questionnaire and 24-h recall. Demographic and lifestyle factors were assessed using self-administered questionnaires. Data on metabolic biomarkers were obtained from a health examination. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratios of prevalent metabolic syndrome and its components according to frequency and type of coffee consumption.

RESULTS:

We found that 76% of the subjects were habitual coffee drinkers, most of whom consumed instant coffee mix containing sugar and powder creamer. After multivariable adjustment, the odds ratios (95% CI) comparing those who consumed coffee ≥3 times/day with those who consumed coffee <1 time/week were 1.37 (1.15-1.63) for obesity, 1.33 (1.11-1.59) for abdominal obesity, 1.28 (1.09-1.51) for hypo-HDL cholesterolemia, and 1.37 (1.10-1.72) for metabolic syndrome. Instant-coffee drinkers were observed to have elevated risks of these metabolic conditions.

CONCLUSIONS:

Consumption of coffee, particularly instant coffee mix, may have harmful effects on MetSyn, perhaps partly deriving from excessive intake of sugar and powder creamer.

KEYWORDS:

Instant coffee; Korean adults; Metabolic syndrome

PMID:
25112922
DOI:
10.1016/j.diabres.2014.07.007
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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