Send to

Choose Destination
Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2014 Oct;106(1):145-53. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2014.07.007. Epub 2014 Jul 22.

Instant coffee consumption may be associated with higher risk of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.

Author information

Department of Food and Nutrition, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk, Republic of Korea.
College of Veterinary Medicine and Research Institute for Veterinary Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
Department of Food and Nutrition, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:



Cumulative evidence suggests that coffee consumption may have beneficial effects on metabolic diseases; however, few previous studies have considered the types of coffee consumed and the additives used. We investigated the relationship between coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) and its components.


We analyzed 17,953 Korean adults, aged 19-65 years, using cross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2007-2011). Coffee consumption level, types of coffee consumed, and the additives used were assessed based on a food frequency questionnaire and 24-h recall. Demographic and lifestyle factors were assessed using self-administered questionnaires. Data on metabolic biomarkers were obtained from a health examination. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratios of prevalent metabolic syndrome and its components according to frequency and type of coffee consumption.


We found that 76% of the subjects were habitual coffee drinkers, most of whom consumed instant coffee mix containing sugar and powder creamer. After multivariable adjustment, the odds ratios (95% CI) comparing those who consumed coffee ≥3 times/day with those who consumed coffee <1 time/week were 1.37 (1.15-1.63) for obesity, 1.33 (1.11-1.59) for abdominal obesity, 1.28 (1.09-1.51) for hypo-HDL cholesterolemia, and 1.37 (1.10-1.72) for metabolic syndrome. Instant-coffee drinkers were observed to have elevated risks of these metabolic conditions.


Consumption of coffee, particularly instant coffee mix, may have harmful effects on MetSyn, perhaps partly deriving from excessive intake of sugar and powder creamer.


Instant coffee; Korean adults; Metabolic syndrome

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center