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Brain Res. 2015 Aug 18;1617:18-27. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2014.07.050. Epub 2014 Aug 7.

Interactions of innate and adaptive immunity in brain development and function.

Author information

1
Center for Brain Immunology and Glia (BIG), Department of Neuroscience, School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA. Electronic address: ajf5v@virginia.edu.
2
Center for Brain Immunology and Glia (BIG), Department of Neuroscience, School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA; Graduate Program in Neuroscience and Medical Scientist Training Program, School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA.

Abstract

It has been known for decades that the immune system has a tremendous impact on behavior. Most work has described the negative role of immune cells on the central nervous system. However, we and others have demonstrated over the last decade that a well-regulated immune system is needed for proper brain function. Here we discuss several neuro-immune interactions, using examples from brain homeostasis and disease states. We will highlight our understanding of the consequences of malfunctioning immunity on neurodevelopment and will discuss the roles of the innate and adaptive immune system in neurodevelopment and how T cells maintain a proper innate immune balance in the brain surroundings and within its parenchyma. Also, we describe how immune imbalance impairs higher order brain functioning, possibly leading to behavioral and cognitive impairment. Lastly, we propose our hypothesis that some behavioral deficits in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as in autism spectrum disorder, are the consequence of malfunctioning immunity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Neuroimmunology in Health And Disease.

KEYWORDS:

Autism spectrum disorder; Innate and adaptive immunity; Microglia; Neuroimmunology; Rett; Syndrome

PMID:
25110235
PMCID:
PMC4320678
DOI:
10.1016/j.brainres.2014.07.050
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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