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Leukemia. 2015 Mar;29(3):660-7. doi: 10.1038/leu.2014.243. Epub 2014 Aug 11.

WT1 mutations are secondary events in AML, show varying frequencies and impact on prognosis between genetic subgroups.

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1] MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Munich, Germany [2] Division of Hematology and Hemostaseology, Department of Internal Medicine I, Medical University Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Munich, Germany.


To investigate frequency and prognostic impact of Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) mutations (mut), we analyzed 3157 unselected acute myeloid leukemia patients for WT1mut in exons 7 and 9. In total, 188 WT1 mutations were detected (exon 7: n=150, exon 9: n=38); 141 were frameshift, 24 missense, 14 non-sense, 7 splice site and 2 indel mutations. In 175/3157 (5.5%) patients, a WT1mut was found. Higher frequencies were detected in patients with biallelic CEBPAmut (13.6%; P=0.001), followed by t(15;17)/PML-RARA (11.0%, P=0.004), and FLT3-ITD (8.5%, P<0.001). WT1mut were rare in DNMT3Amut (4.4%, P=0.014), ASXL1mut (1.7%, P<0.001), IDH2R140 (1.7%, P=0.001) and IDH1R132 (0.9%, P<0.001), and not detected in complex karyotypes (P=0.047). They were more frequent in females than in males (6.6 vs 4.7%; P=0.014) and in patients <60 years (P<0.001). Analysis of paired samples of 35 patients revealed a relatively unstable character of WT1mut (65.7% retained, 34.3% lost WT1mut at relapse). In the total cohort and subgroups with high WT1mut incidences (biallelic CEBPAmut, PML-RARA), WT1mut had no impact on prognosis. In normal karyotype AML, WT1mut patients had shorter event-free survival (EFS) (10.8 vs 17.9 m, P=0.008). In multivariate analysis, WT1mut had an independent adverse impact on EFS (P=0.002, hazard ratio (HR): 1.64) besides FLT3-ITD status (P<0.001, HR: 1.71) and age (P<0.001, HR: 1.28).

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