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Lancet. 2014 Dec 6;384(9959):2027-35. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60525-0. Epub 2014 Aug 6.

Screening and prostate cancer mortality: results of the European Randomised Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) at 13 years of follow-up.

Collaborators (170)

Kirkels WJ, Rietbergen JB, van der Cruijsen IW, Raaijmakers R, de Vries SH, Roemeling S, Gosselaar C, Wolters T, van den Bergh RC, van Leeuwen PJ, Bul M, Zhu X, van Vugt HA, Bokhorst LP, Salman JW, Venderbos LD, Yurdakul G, Boeken-Kruger A, Wijburg C, Forouzanfor M, de Boer M, Postma R, Vis AN, Hoedemaeker R, van Leenders A, Blijenberg B, van der Maas PJ, Otto S, Draisma G, Beemsterboer P, Essink-Bot M, Korfage I, Boer R, Wildhagen M, Heijnsdijk E, Merkelbach W, Hoekstra W, Blom J, Damhuis RA, Reedijk A, Kranse R, Roobol DW, Roobol W, van den Berg E, de Zwart GJ, Franken-Raab CG, van Slooten-Midderig M, Smit A, van der Drift V, de Bilde E, Mani L, Visser-van Dongen M, Versteeg-Leenheer H, Zoutendijk B, Vink N, van Meurs H, de Bruijn AE, Devriendt H, Thijs G, Hermans A, D'Hooge K, Neels H, Wauters A, Neetens I, Kockx M, Keuppens F, Braeckman J, Govaerts F, Spinnewijn B, Van Hoey M, Putzeys T, De Coninck M, Dourcy-Belle-Rose B, Vancauwenbergh A, Coebergh JW, Verhaegen H, Van Vliet, Standaert B, Van Herck L, Nyberg M, Bergdahl S, Lodding P, Khatami A, Stranne J, Ahlgren H, Eriksson GB, Al-Battat MH, Erlandsson A, Carlsson S, Grenabo A, Godtman R, Pettersson S, Varenhorst E, Norlén BJ, Zackrisson B, Holmberg E, Frösing R, Pileblad E, Pihl CG, Laurila M, Aro J, Juusela H, Mildh M, Lahtela J, Karhunen PJ, Mäkinen T, Rannikko A, Malila N, Kilpeläinen T, Murtola T, Rannikko S, Ruutu M, Ala-Opas M, Kuivalainen S, Karhunen T, Leinimaa M, Saarinen J, Cappellini M, Bianchi S, Lombardi C, Bussotti A, Bastiani P, Di Lollo S, Manneschi G, Crocetti E, Bonardi R, Rubeca T, Detti B, Berenguer A, Rodriguez JA, Aybar B, Angulo JC, Granados R, Seiler D, Baumgartner M, Randazzo M, Tscholl R, Woodtli E, Schärer L, Herklotz R, Stamm B, Wernli M, Bodis S, Grobholz R, Lehmann K, Schmid HR, Iselin HU, Bubendorf L, Wyler S, Steurer J, Kurrer M, Malavaud B, Iborra F, Malavaud S, Grosclaude P, Tretarre B, Bataille V, Bessaoud F, Neville M, Van der Kwast T, van Leenders GJ, Hoedemaeker RF, Pihl CG, Martikainen PM, Laurila M, Bubendorf L, Santonja C, Neetens I, DiLollo S, Mazerolles C.

Author information

1
Department of Urology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands. Electronic address: secr.schroder@erasmusmc.nl.
2
Department of Urology, Sahlgrenska Academy at Goteborg University, Goteborg, Sweden.
3
Department of Urology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
4
Department of Urology, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland; School of Medicine, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
5
Unit of Clinical and Descriptive Epidemiology, ISPO, Florence, Italy.
6
Provinciaal Instituut voor Hygiene, Antwerp, Belgium.
7
Department of Urology, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau, Switzerland; Department of Urology, Academic Hospital Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany.
8
Department of Urology, Hospital Infanta Cristina, Parla, Madrid, Spain; Department of Urology, Hospital Universitario de Getafe, Getafe, Madrid, Spain; Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
9
Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki, Finland.
10
Department of Surgery (Urology), Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA; Departments of Laboratory Medicine and Medicine (GU-Oncology), Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA; Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; Institute of Biomedical Technology, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
11
Oncology Centre Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
12
Department of Urology, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau, Switzerland.
13
Department of Urology, Hospital Universitario de Fuenlabrada, Madrid, Spain; Department of Urology, Hospital Universitario de Getafe, Getafe, Madrid, Spain; Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid, Spain.
14
Department of Urology, Sahlgrenska Academy at Goteborg University, Goteborg, Sweden; Department of Surgery (Urology), Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.
15
Department of Urology, CHU Lille, Univ Lille Nord de France, Lille, France.
16
Service d'Urologie, Clinique BeauSoleil, Montpellier, France.
17
Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki, Finland; School of Health Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
18
Department of Clinical Chemistry, Helsinki University Central Hospital Laboratory Division (HUSLAB), Helsinki, Finland.
19
FIMLAB, Department of Pathology, Tampere, Finland.
20
Department of Urology, Helsinki University Central Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
21
Department of Urology, Carlanderska Sjukhuset Göteborg, Sweden.
22
Centre of Laboratory Medicine, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau, Switzerland.
23
Department of Pathology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
24
Department of Clinical Chemistry, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
25
Department of Public Health, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
26
Centre for Cancer Prevention, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.
27
School of Health Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The European Randomised study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) has shown significant reductions in prostate cancer mortality after 9 years and 11 years of follow-up, but screening is controversial because of adverse events such as overdiagnosis. We provide updated results of mortality from prostate cancer with follow-up to 2010, with analyses truncated at 9, 11, and 13 years.

METHODS:

ERSPC is a multicentre, randomised trial with a predefined centralised database, analysis plan, and core age group (55-69 years), which assesses prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing in eight European countries. Eligible men aged 50-74 years were identified from population registries and randomly assigned by computer generated random numbers to screening or no intervention (control). Investigators were masked to group allocation. The primary outcome was prostate cancer mortality in the core age group. Analysis was by intention to treat. We did a secondary analysis that corrected for selection bias due to non-participation. Only incidence and no mortality data at 9 years' follow-up are reported for the French centres. This study is registered with Current Controlled Trials, number ISRCTN49127736.

FINDINGS:

With data truncated at 13 years of follow-up, 7408 prostate cancer cases were diagnosed in the intervention group and 6107 cases in the control group. The rate ratio of prostate cancer incidence between the intervention and control groups was 1·91 (95% CI 1·83-1·99) after 9 years (1·64 [1·58-1·69] including France), 1·66 (1·60-1·73) after 11 years, and 1·57 (1·51-1·62) after 13 years. The rate ratio of prostate cancer mortality was 0·85 (0·70-1·03) after 9 years, 0·78 (0·66-0·91) after 11 years, and 0·79 (0·69-0·91) at 13 years. The absolute risk reduction of death from prostate cancer at 13 years was 0·11 per 1000 person-years or 1·28 per 1000 men randomised, which is equivalent to one prostate cancer death averted per 781 (95% CI 490-1929) men invited for screening or one per 27 (17-66) additional prostate cancer detected. After adjustment for non-participation, the rate ratio of prostate cancer mortality in men screened was 0·73 (95% CI 0·61-0·88).

INTERPRETATION:

In this update the ERSPC confirms a substantial reduction in prostate cancer mortality attributable to testing of PSA, with a substantially increased absolute effect at 13 years compared with findings after 9 and 11 years. Despite our findings, further quantification of harms and their reduction are still considered a prerequisite for the introduction of populated-based screening.

FUNDING:

Each centre had its own funding responsibility.

PMID:
25108889
PMCID:
PMC4427906
DOI:
10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60525-0
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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