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J Neurosurg. 2014 Dec;121(6):1411-5. doi: 10.3171/2014.7.JNS132793. Epub 2014 Aug 8.

Encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis for cerebral proliferative angiopathy with cerebral ischemia.

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Department of Neurosurgery, Wakayama Rosai Hospital, Wakayama, Japan.


Cerebral proliferative angiopathy (CPA) is a rare clinical entity. This disorder is characterized by diffuse vascular abnormalities with intermingled normal brain parenchyma, and is differentiated from classic arteriovenous malformations. The management of CPA in patients presenting with nonhemorrhagic neurological deficits due to cerebral ischemia is challenging and controversial. The authors report a case of adult CPA with cerebral ischemia in which neurological deficits were improved after encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS). A 28-year-old man presented with epilepsy. Magnetic resonance imaging and angiography showed a diffuse vascular network (CPA) in the right hemisphere. Antiepileptic medications were administered. Four years after the initial onset of epilepsy, the patient's left-hand grip strength gradually decreased over the course of 1 year. The MRI studies showed no infarcts, but technetium-99m-labeled ethyl cysteinate dimer ((99m)Tc-ECD) SPECT studies obtained with acetazolamide challenge demonstrated hypoperfusion and severely impaired cerebrovascular reactivity over the affected hemisphere. This suggested that the patient's neurological deficits were associated with cerebral ischemia. The authors performed EDAS for cerebral ischemia, and the patient's hand grip strength gradually improved after the operation. Follow-up angiography studies obtained 7 months after the operation showed profound neovascularization through the superficial temporal artery and the middle meningeal artery. A SPECT study showed slight improvement of hypoperfusion at the focal region around the right motor area, indicating clinical improvement from the operation. The authors conclude that EDAS may be a treatment option for CPA-related hypoperfusion.


99mTc-ECD = technetium-99m–labeled ethyl cysteinate dimer; AVM = arteriovenous malformation; CPA = cerebral proliferative angiopathy; ECA = external carotid artery; EDAS = encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis; ICA = internal cerebral artery; STA = superficial temporal artery; VEGF = vascular endothelial growth factor; arteriovenous malformation; cerebral ischemia; cerebral proliferative angiopathy; encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis; epilepsy; vascular disorders

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