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PLoS One. 2014 Aug 8;9(8):e104273. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0104273. eCollection 2014.

Perinatal lead (Pb) exposure results in sex-specific effects on food intake, fat, weight, and insulin response across the murine life-course.

Author information

1
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America.
2
Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America.
3
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America; Center for Human Growth and Development, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America; Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Abstract

Developmental lead (Pb) exposure has been associated with lower body weight in human infants and late onset obesity in mice. We determined the association of perinatal Pb exposure in mice with changes in obesity-related phenotypes into adulthood. Mice underwent exposure via maternal drinking water supplemented with 0 (control), 2.1 (low), 16 (medium), or 32 (high) ppm Pb-acetate two weeks prior to mating through lactation. Offspring were phenotyped at ages 3, 6, and 9 months for energy expenditure, spontaneous activity, food intake, body weight, body composition, and at age 10 months for glucose tolerance. Data analyses were stratified by sex and adjusted for litter effects. Exposed females and males exhibited increased energy expenditure as compared to controls (p<0.0001 for both). In females, horizontal activity differed significantly from controls (p = 0.02) over the life-course. Overall, food intake increased in exposed females and males (p<0.0008 and p<0.0001, respectively) with significant linear trends at 9 months in females (p = 0.01) and 6 months in males (p<0.01). Body weight was significantly increased in males at the medium and high exposures (p = 0.001 and p = 0.006). Total body fat differed among exposed females and males (p<0.0001 and p<0.0001, respectively). Insulin response was significantly increased in medium exposure males (p<0.05). Perinatal Pb exposure at blood lead levels between 4.1 µg/dL and 32 µg/dL is associated with increased food intake, body weight, total body fat, energy expenditure, activity, and insulin response in mice. Physiological effects of developmental Pb exposure persist and vary according to sex and age.

PMID:
25105421
PMCID:
PMC4126699
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0104273
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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