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Occup Environ Med. 2014 Nov;71(11):757-64. doi: 10.1136/oemed-2014-102170. Epub 2014 Aug 7.

Occupational exposure to pesticides and endotoxin and Parkinson disease in the Netherlands.

Author information

1
Division of Environmental Epidemiology, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
2
Division of Environmental Epidemiology, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
3
St Elisabeth Hospital Tilburg, Tilburg, The Netherlands TweeSteden Hospital Tilburg, Tilburg, The Netherlands.
4
Canisius-Wilhelmina Hospital Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
5
Vlietland Hospital Schiedam, Schiedam, The Netherlands.
6
University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Previous research has indicated that occupational exposure to pesticides and possibly airborne endotoxin may increase the risk of developing Parkinson disease (PD). We studied the associations of PD with occupational exposure to pesticides, specifically to the functional subclasses insecticides, herbicides and fungicides, and to airborne endotoxin. In addition we evaluated specific pesticides (active ingredients) previously associated with PD.

METHODS:

We used data from a hospital-based case-control study, including 444 patients with PD and 876 age and sex matched controls. Exposures to pesticides from application and re-entry work were estimated with the ALOHA+job-exposure matrix and with an exposure algorithm based on self-reported information on pesticide use. To assess exposure to specific active ingredients a crop-exposure matrix was developed. Endotoxin exposure was estimated with the DOM job-exposure matrix.

RESULTS:

The results showed almost no significant associations. However, ORs were elevated in the higher exposure categories for pesticides in general, insecticides, herbicides and fungicides, and below unity for endotoxin exposure. The analyses on specific active ingredients showed a significant association of PD risk with the fungicide benomyl.

CONCLUSIONS:

This study did not provide evidence for a relation between pesticide exposure and PD. However, the consistently elevated ORs in the higher exposure categories suggest that a positive association may exist. The possible association with the active ingredient benomyl requires follow-up in other studies. This study did not provide support for a possible association between endotoxin exposure and PD.

KEYWORDS:

Parkinson disease; endotoxins; pesticides

PMID:
25104429
DOI:
10.1136/oemed-2014-102170
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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