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FASEB J. 2014 Nov;28(11):4719-28. doi: 10.1096/fj.14-252460. Epub 2014 Aug 7.

Oral administration of bisphenol A induces high blood pressure through angiotensin II/CaMKII-dependent uncoupling of eNOS.

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Laboratory of Pathophysiology of the Vascular Wall, Physiology Unit, Department of Systems Biology.
Physiology Unit, Department of Systems Biology, Laboratory of Renal Physiology and Experimental Nephrology.
Laboratory of Renal Physiology and Experimental Nephrology, Cell Biology Unit, Department of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, and.
National Center for Cardiovascular Research (CNIC), Madrid, Spain; and.
Laboratory of Renal Physiology and Experimental Nephrology, Department of Medicine and Medical Specialties, University of Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares, Spain;
National Center for Cardiovascular Research (CNIC), Madrid, Spain; and Laboratory of Cardiovascular Pathophysiology, Joint Translational Research Unit, University Francisco de Vitoria School of Medicine and Division of Cardiology, University Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, Spain


Bisphenol A (BPA) is found in human urine and fat tissue. Higher urinary BPA concentrations are associated with arterial hypertension. To shed light on the underlying mechanism, we orally administered BPA (4 nM to 400 μM in drinking water) to 8-wk-old CD11 mice over 30 d. Mice developed dosage-dependent high blood pressure (systolic 130 ± 12 vs. 170 ± 12 mmHg; EC50 0.4 μM), impairment of acetylcholine (AcH)-induced carotid relaxation (0.66 ± 0.08 vs. 0.44 ± 0.1 mm), a 1.7-fold increase in arterial angiotensin II (AngII), an 8.7-fold increase in eNOS mRNA and protein, and significant eNOS-dependent superoxide and peroxynitrite accumulation. AngII inhibition with 0.5 mg/ml losartan reduced oxidative stress and normalized blood pressure and endothelium-dependent relaxation, which suggests that AngII uncouples eNOS and contributes to the BPA-induced endothelial dysfunction by promoting oxidative and nitrosative stress. Microarray analysis of mouse aortic endothelial cells revealed a 2.5-fold increase in expression of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-α (CaMKII-α) in response to 10 nM BPA, with increased expression of phosphorylated-CaMKII-α in carotid rings of BPA-exposed mice, whereas CaMKII-α inhibition with 100 nM autocamptide-2-related inhibitor peptide (AIP) reduced BPA-mediated increase of superoxide. Administration of CaMKII-α inhibitor KN 93 reduced BPA-induced blood pressure and carotid blood velocity in mice, and reverted BPA-mediated carotid constriction in response to treatment with AcH. Given that CaMKII-α inhibition prevents BPA-mediated high blood pressure, our data suggest that BPA regulates blood pressure by inducing AngII/CaMKII-α uncoupling of eNOS.


AngII; BPA; endothelial dysfunction; hypertension; superoxide

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