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Yeast. 2015 Jan;32(1):245-56. doi: 10.1002/yea.3034. Epub 2014 Aug 29.

Impact of yeast starter formulations on the production of volatile compounds during wine fermentation.

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Scuola di Scienze Agrarie, Forestali, Alimentari ed Ambientali, Università degli Studi della Basilicata, Potenza, Italy.


The most diffused starter formulation in winemaking is actually represented by active dry yeast (ADY). Spray-drying has been reported as an appropriate preservation method for yeast and other micro-organisms. Despite the numerous advantages of this method, the high air temperatures used can negatively affect cell viability and the fermentative performance of dried cells. In the present study, 11 wine S. cerevisiae strains (both indigenous and commercial) were submitted to spray-drying; different process conditions were tested in order to select the conditions allowing the highest strain survival. The strains exhibited high variability for tolerance to spray-drying treatment. Selected strains were tested in fermentation at laboratory scale in different formulations (free fresh cells, free dried cells, immobilized fresh cells and immobilized dried cells), in order to assess the influence of starter formulation on fermentative fitness of strains and aromatic quality of wine. The analysis of volatile fraction in the experimental wines produced by selected strains in different formulations allowed identification of > 50 aromatic compounds (alcohols, esters, ketones, aldehydes and terpenes). The results obtained showed that the starter formulation significantly influenced the content of volatile compounds. In particular, the wines obtained by strains in dried forms (as both free and immobilized cells) contained higher numbers of volatile compounds than wines obtained from fresh cells.


Saccharomyces cerevisiae; drying tolerance; spray-drying; starter formulation; volatile compounds

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