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Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 2014 Sep;166C(3):290-301. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31408. Epub 2014 Aug 5.

Females with de novo aberrations in PHF6: clinical overlap of Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann with Coffin-Siris syndrome.


Recently, de novo aberrations in PHF6 were identified in females with intellectual disability and with a distinct phenotype including a characteristic facial gestalt with bitemporal narrowing, prominent supraorbital ridges, synophrys, a short nose and dental anomalies, tapering fingers with brachytelephalangy, clinodactyly and hypoplastic nails, short toes with hypoplastic nails, and linear skin hyperpigmentation. In adolescent or older patients, this phenotype overlaps but is not identical with Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome in males, caused by X-linked recessive mutations in PHF6. In younger girls there seems to be a striking phenotypic overlap with Coffin-Siris syndrome, which is characterized by intellectual disability, sparse hair and hypoplastic nails. This review will summarize and characterize the female phenotype caused by de novo aberrations in PHF6 and will discuss the overlapping and distinguishing features with Coffin-Siris syndrome.


BFLS; Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome; Coffin-Siris syndrome; PHF6

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