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Neurology. 2014 Sep 2;83(10):920-8. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000000755. Epub 2014 Aug 6.

Vitamin D and the risk of dementia and Alzheimer disease.

Author information

1
From the University of Exeter Medical School (T.J.L., W.E.H., I.A.L., K.K., M.S., D.J.L.), Exeter, UK; Department of Internal Medicine and Geriatrics (C.A., O.B.), Angers University Hospital, Angers, France; Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine (P.H.M.C.), Florida International University, Miami; Mailman School of Public Health (L.F.), Columbia University, New York; Kidney Research Institute, Division of Nephrology (B.R.K.), University of Washington, Seattle; Departments of Epidemiology (L.H.K.) and Neurology and Psychiatry (O.L.L.), University of Pittsburgh, PA; Division of General Medicine (K.M.L.), Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Center for Clinical Management Research, Ann Arbor, MI; and the Institute for Social Research and the Institute for Healthcare Policy and Innovation (K.M.L.), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
2
From the University of Exeter Medical School (T.J.L., W.E.H., I.A.L., K.K., M.S., D.J.L.), Exeter, UK; Department of Internal Medicine and Geriatrics (C.A., O.B.), Angers University Hospital, Angers, France; Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine (P.H.M.C.), Florida International University, Miami; Mailman School of Public Health (L.F.), Columbia University, New York; Kidney Research Institute, Division of Nephrology (B.R.K.), University of Washington, Seattle; Departments of Epidemiology (L.H.K.) and Neurology and Psychiatry (O.L.L.), University of Pittsburgh, PA; Division of General Medicine (K.M.L.), Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Center for Clinical Management Research, Ann Arbor, MI; and the Institute for Social Research and the Institute for Healthcare Policy and Innovation (K.M.L.), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. david.llewellyn@exeter.ac.uk.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To determine whether low vitamin D concentrations are associated with an increased risk of incident all-cause dementia and Alzheimer disease.

METHODS:

One thousand six hundred fifty-eight elderly ambulatory adults free from dementia, cardiovascular disease, and stroke who participated in the US population-based Cardiovascular Health Study between 1992-1993 and 1999 were included. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry from blood samples collected in 1992-1993. Incident all-cause dementia and Alzheimer disease status were assessed during follow-up using National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke/Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria.

RESULTS:

During a mean follow-up of 5.6 years, 171 participants developed all-cause dementia, including 102 cases of Alzheimer disease. Using Cox proportional hazards models, the multivariate adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval [CI]) for incident all-cause dementia in participants who were severely 25(OH)D deficient (<25 nmol/L) and deficient (≥25 to <50 nmol/L) were 2.25 (95% CI: 1.23-4.13) and 1.53 (95% CI: 1.06-2.21) compared to participants with sufficient concentrations (≥50 nmol/L). The multivariate adjusted hazard ratios for incident Alzheimer disease in participants who were severely 25(OH)D deficient and deficient compared to participants with sufficient concentrations were 2.22 (95% CI: 1.02-4.83) and 1.69 (95% CI: 1.06-2.69). In multivariate adjusted penalized smoothing spline plots, the risk of all-cause dementia and Alzheimer disease markedly increased below a threshold of 50 nmol/L.

CONCLUSION:

Our results confirm that vitamin D deficiency is associated with a substantially increased risk of all-cause dementia and Alzheimer disease. This adds to the ongoing debate about the role of vitamin D in nonskeletal conditions.

Comment in

PMID:
25098535
PMCID:
PMC4153851
DOI:
10.1212/WNL.0000000000000755
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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