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J Feline Med Surg. 2015 Apr;17(4):359-63. doi: 10.1177/1098612X14545141. Epub 2014 Aug 6.

Therapeutic serum phenobarbital concentrations obtained using chronic transdermal administration of phenobarbital in healthy cats.

Author information

1
Department of Medical Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, School of Veterinary Medicine, Madison, WI, USA.
2
Department of Medical Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, School of Veterinary Medicine, Madison, WI, USA barnesh@vetmed.wisc.edu.
3
UW Veterinary Care Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, School of Veterinary Medicine, Madison, WI, USA.

Abstract

Seizures are a common cause of neurologic disease, and phenobarbital (PB) is the most commonly used antiepileptic drug. Chronic oral dosing can be challenging for cat owners, leading to poor compliance. The purpose of this study was to determine if the transdermal administration of PB could achieve serum PB concentrations of between 15 and 45 μg/ml in healthy cats. Nineteen healthy cats were enrolled in three groups. Transdermal PB in pluronic lecithin organogel (PLO) was applied to the pinnae for 14 days at a dosage of 3 mg/kg q12h in group 1 (n = 6 cats) and 9 mg/kg q12h in group 2 (n = 7 cats). Transdermal PB in Lipoderm Activemax was similarly applied at 9 mg/kg q12h for 14 days in group 3 (n = 6 cats). Steady-state serum PB concentrations were measured at trough, and at 2, 4 and 6 h after the morning dose on day 15. In group 1, median concentrations ranged from 6.0-7.5 μg/ml throughout the day (observed range 0-11 μg/ml). Group 2 median concentrations were 26.0 μg/ml (observed range 18.0-37.0 μg/ml). For group 3, median concentrations ranged from 15.0-17.0 μg/ml throughout the day (range 5-29 μg/ml). Side effects were mild. One cat was withdrawn from group 2 owing to ataxia and sedation. These results show therapeutic serum PB concentrations can be achieved in cats following chronic transdermal administration of PB in PLO at a dosage of 9 mg/kg q12h. More individual variation was noted using Lipoderm Activemax. Transdermal administration may be an alternative for cats that are difficult to medicate orally.

PMID:
25098448
DOI:
10.1177/1098612X14545141
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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