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J Biol Eng. 2014 Aug 1;8:20. doi: 10.1186/1754-1611-8-20. eCollection 2014.

Endometrial stem cells in regenerative medicine.

Author information

1
Centre for Nanotechnology and Regenerative Medicine, UCL Division of Surgery & Interventional Science, University College London (UCL), London NW3 2QG, UK ; Applied Cell Sciences Department, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
2
Centre for Nanotechnology and Regenerative Medicine, UCL Division of Surgery & Interventional Science, University College London (UCL), London NW3 2QG, UK ; UCL Medical School, University College London (UCL), London, UK.
3
Applied Cell Sciences Department, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
4
Centre for Nanotechnology and Regenerative Medicine, UCL Division of Surgery & Interventional Science, University College London (UCL), London NW3 2QG, UK ; Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust Hospital, London, UK.

Abstract

First described in 2004, endometrial stem cells (EnSCs) are adult stem cells isolated from the endometrial tissue. EnSCs comprise of a population of epithelial stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and side population stem cells. When secreted in the menstrual blood, they are termed menstrual stem cells or endometrial regenerative cells. Mounting evidence suggests that EnSCs can be utilized in regenerative medicine. EnSCs can be used as immuno-modulatory agents to attenuate inflammation, are implicated in angiogenesis and vascularization during tissue regeneration, and can also be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells. Furthermore, EnSCs can be used in tissue engineering applications and there are several clinical trials currently in place to ascertain the therapeutic potential of EnSCs. This review highlights the progress made in EnSC research, describing their mesodermal, ectodermal, and endodermal potentials both in vitro and in vivo.

KEYWORDS:

Endometrial regenerative cells; Endometrial stem cells; Endometrium; Menstrual blood stem cells; Regenerative medicine

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