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Ann Oncol. 2015 Jan;26(1):47-57. doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdu225. Epub 2014 Aug 5.

Estimates of benefits and harms of prophylactic use of aspirin in the general population.

Author information

1
Centre for Cancer Prevention, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK j.cuzick@qmul.ac.uk.
2
Centre for Cancer Prevention, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.
3
Department of Epidemiology, IRCCS-Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche 'Mario Negri', Milan, Italy.
4
Department of Clinical Cancer Prevention, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, USA.
5
Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
6
Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston.
7
Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda.
8
Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, USA.
9
Centre for Biomedical Research-Translational and Stratified Medicine, Peninsula Schools of Medicine and Dentistry, Plymouth University, Plymouth Centre for Digestive Diseases, Blizard Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.
10
Department of Epidemiology, IRCCS-Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche 'Mario Negri', Milan, Italy Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.
11
Centre for Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.
12
Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, USA.
13
Stroke Prevention Research Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
14
Tumor and Breast Center ZeTuP, St Gallen, Switzerland.
15
Gastrointestinal and Other Cancers Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Accumulating evidence supports an effect of aspirin in reducing overall cancer incidence and mortality in the general population. We reviewed current data and assessed the benefits and harms of prophylactic use of aspirin in the general population.

METHODS:

The effect of aspirin for site-specific cancer incidence and mortality, cardiovascular events was collated from the most recent systematic reviews. Studies identified through systematic Medline search provided data regarding harmful effects of aspirin and baseline rates of harms like gastrointestinal bleeding and peptic ulcer.

RESULTS:

The effects of aspirin on cancer are not apparent until at least 3 years after the start of use, and some benefits are sustained for several years after cessation in long-term users. No differences between low and standard doses of aspirin are observed, but there were no direct comparisons. Higher doses do not appear to confer additional benefit but increase toxicities. Excess bleeding is the most important harm associated with aspirin use, and its risk and fatality rate increases with age. For average-risk individuals aged 50-65 years taking aspirin for 10 years, there would be a relative reduction of between 7% (women) and 9% (men) in the number of cancer, myocardial infarction or stroke events over a 15-year period and an overall 4% relative reduction in all deaths over a 20-year period.

CONCLUSIONS:

Prophylactic aspirin use for a minimum of 5 years at doses between 75 and 325 mg/day appears to have favourable benefit-harm profile; longer use is likely to have greater benefits. Further research is needed to determine the optimum dose and duration of use, to identify individuals at increased risk of bleeding, and to test effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori screening-eradication before starting aspirin prophylaxis.

KEYWORDS:

aspirin; benefit-harm; cancer; cardiovascular disease; gastrointestinal bleeding; prevention

PMID:
25096604
PMCID:
PMC4269341
DOI:
10.1093/annonc/mdu225
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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