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PLoS One. 2014 Aug 5;9(8):e103993. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0103993. eCollection 2014.

Smoking cessation reverses DNA double-strand breaks in human mononuclear cells.

Author information

1
Department of Cardiovascular Physiology and Medicine, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima, Japan.
2
Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima, Japan.
3
Department of Cellular Biology, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan.
4
Department of Anatomical Pathology, Hiroshima University Hospital, Hiroshima, Japan.
5
Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima, Japan.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, which is responsible for a significant proportion of smoking-related deaths. However, the precise mechanism whereby smoking induces this pathology has not been fully delineated. Based on observation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), the most harmful type of DNA damage, in atherosclerotic lesions, we hypothesized that there is a direct association between smoking and DSBs. The goal of this study was to investigate whether smoking induces DSBs and smoking cessation reverses DSBs in vivo through examination of peripheral mononuclear cells (MNCs).

APPROACH AND RESULTS:

Immunoreactivity of oxidative modification of DNA and DSBs were increased in human atherosclerotic lesions but not in the adjacent normal area. DSBs in human MNCs isolated from the blood of volunteers can be detected as cytologically visible "foci" using an antibody against the phosphorylated form of the histone H2AX (γ-H2AX). Young healthy active smokers (n = 15) showed increased γ-H2AX foci number when compared with non-smokers (n = 12) (foci number/cell: median, 0.37/cell; interquartile range [IQR], 0.31-0.58 vs. 4.36/cell; IQR, 3.09-7.39, p<0.0001). Smoking cessation for 1 month reduced the γ-H2AX foci number (median, 4.44/cell; IQR, 4.36-5.24 to 0.28/cell; IQR, 0.12-0.53, p<0.05). A positive correlation was noted between γ-H2AX foci number and exhaled carbon monoxide levels (r = 0.75, p<0.01).

CONCLUSIONS:

Smoking induces DSBs in human MNCs in vivo, and importantly, smoking cessation for 1 month resulted in a decrease in DSBs to a level comparable to that seen in non-smokers. These data reinforce the notion that the cigarette smoking induces DSBs and highlight the importance of smoking cessation.

PMID:
25093845
PMCID:
PMC4122368
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0103993
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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