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Proteomics. 2014 Nov;14(21-22):2623-7. doi: 10.1002/pmic.201400110. Epub 2014 Sep 5.

Integrated and convenient procedure for protein extraction from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues for LC-MS/MS analysis.

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Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA; Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.


Because fresh-frozen tissue samples associated with long-term clinical data and of rare diseases are often unobtainable at the present time, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples are considered a highly valuable resource for researchers. However, protein extraction from FFPE tissues faces challenges of deparaffinization and cross-link reversion. Current procedures for protein extraction from FFPE tissue require separate steps and toxic solvents, resulting in inconvenience in protein extraction. To overcome these limitations, an integrated method was developed using nontoxic solvents in four types of FFPE tissues. The average amount of proteins from three replicates of bladder, kidney, liver, and lung FFPE tissues were 442.6, 728.9, 736.4, and 694.7 μg with CVs of 7.5, 5.8, 2.4, and 4.5%, respectively. Proteomic analysis showed that 348, 417, 607, and 304 unique proteins were identified and quantified without specification of isoform by a least two peptides from bladder, kidney, liver, and lung FFPE tissue samples, respectively. The analysis of individual protein CV demonstrated that 97-99% of the proteins were quantified with a CV ≤ 30%, verifying the reproducibility of the integrated protein extraction method. In summary, the developed method is high-yield, reproducible, convenient, simple, low cost, nonvolatile, nonflammable, and nontoxic.


Biomedicine; FFPE; Formalin-fixed; Paraffin-embedded; Protein extraction; Tissue

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