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Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2014 Sep;1324:55-66. doi: 10.1111/nyas.12478. Epub 2014 Aug 4.

Proposing nutrients and nutrient levels for rice fortification.

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Nutrition Advisory Office, World Food Programme, Rome, Italy; Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts.


Micronutrient deficiencies are often linked to low dietary diversity. Rice fortification could substantially increase micronutrient intake in countries where rice is a staple food. The World Health Organization (WHO) interim consensus statement on maize and wheat flour fortification is based on the premise of the public health importance of specific micronutrient deficiencies and evidence of the benefits of increased micronutrient intake. Since this rationale for maize and wheat flour also applies to rice, it is recommended to fortify rice with iron, folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin A, and zinc, as well as with thiamin, vitamin B6, and niacin, as polished rice has low levels of these micronutrients. To achieve intake that meets the estimated average requirement of adults, the following levels are recommended where rice consumption is 150-300 g/cap/day (mg/100 g): iron, 7; folic acid, 0.13; vitamin B12, 0.001; vitamin A, 0.15; zinc, 6; thiamin, 0.5; niacin, 7; and vitamin B6, 0.6. These concentrations can be achieved at a 1:100 blending ratio of fortified:unfortified kernels. The costs of rice fortification are largely determined by the manufacturing of the fortified kernels rather than by the number of micronutrients that are added. These are general recommendations that can be adjusted locally, and monitoring and impact evaluation should accompany the introduction of rice fortification.


micronutrient deficiencies; rice fortification; rice-consuming populations; staple food fortification

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