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J Affect Disord. 2014 Oct;168:337-48. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2014.06.021. Epub 2014 Jun 19.

Risk factors for the onset of panic and generalised anxiety disorders in the general adult population: a systematic review of cohort studies.

Author information

1
Unidad de Investigación, del Distrito Sanitario de Atención Primaria Málaga-Guadalhorce, Spain; Red de Investigación en Actividades Preventivas y Promoción de la Salud, ISCIII (redIAPP), Spain; Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga (IBIMA), Spain.
2
Red de Investigación en Actividades Preventivas y Promoción de la Salud, ISCIII (redIAPP), Spain; Departamento de Psicología Evolutiva y de la Educación, Universidad de Sevilla, Spain; Departamento de Psicología, Sociología y Trabajo Social. Universidad Loyola Andalucía, Sevilla, Spain.
3
Red de Investigación en Actividades Preventivas y Promoción de la Salud, ISCIII (redIAPP), Spain; Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga (IBIMA), Spain; Departamento de Personalidad, Evaluación y Tratamiento Psicológico. Universidad de Málaga, Spain.
4
Red de Investigación en Actividades Preventivas y Promoción de la Salud, ISCIII (redIAPP), Spain; Faculty of Health Sciences, Centre for Disability Research and Policy, Brain and Mind Research Institute University of Sydney, Australia; Fundacio Sant Joan de Deu per a la Recerca i la Docencia, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Deu, Barcelona, Spain.
5
Red de Investigación en Actividades Preventivas y Promoción de la Salud, ISCIII (redIAPP), Spain; Servicio de Psiquiatría, Hospital Miguel Servet, Instituto Aragonés Ciencias de la Salud, Zaragoza, Spain.
6
Red de Investigación en Actividades Preventivas y Promoción de la Salud, ISCIII (redIAPP), Spain; Institut Universitari d'Investigació en Ciències de la Salut (IUNICS), Universidad de las Islas Baleares, Palma de Mallorca, Spain.
7
Red de Investigación en Actividades Preventivas y Promoción de la Salud, ISCIII (redIAPP), Spain; Fundacio Sant Joan de Deu per a la Recerca i la Docencia, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Deu, Barcelona, Spain.
8
Red de Investigación en Actividades Preventivas y Promoción de la Salud, ISCIII (redIAPP), Spain; Fundacio Sant Joan de Deu per a la Recerca i la Docencia, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Deu, Barcelona, Spain; School of Pharmacy, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain.
9
Unidad de Investigación, del Distrito Sanitario de Atención Primaria Málaga-Guadalhorce, Spain; Red de Investigación en Actividades Preventivas y Promoción de la Salud, ISCIII (redIAPP), Spain; Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga (IBIMA), Spain; Centro de Salud El Palo, Servicio Andaluz de Salud, Spain; Departamento de Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública, Universidad de Málaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071 Málaga, Spain. Electronic address: jabellon@uma.es.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

We aimed to assess available evidence on risk factors associated with the onset of panic disorder (PD) and/or generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) in cohort studies in the general adult population.

METHODS:

Systematic review using MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Embase. Search terms included panic disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, cohort studies and risk factors.

RESULTS:

We finally selected 21 studies, involving 163,366 persons with a median follow-up of 5 years. 1) Sociodemographic factors: PD was associated with age, female gender, and few economic resources. GAD was associated with age, non-Hispanics and Blacks, being divorced or widowed, and few economic resources. 2) Psychosocial factors: PD was associated with smoking and alcohol problems. GAD was associated with stressful life events in childhood and adulthood, and personality. 3) Physical and mental health factors: PD was associated with the number of physical diseases suffered and the joint hypermobility syndrome. PD was also associated with a parental history of mental disorders, as well as with other anxiety disorders and other mental health problems in the person affected. GAD was associated with a parental history of mental disorders, as well as with other anxiety disorders and other mental health problems in the person affected, plus already having received psychiatric care.

LIMITATIONS:

Few studies examined the same risk factors.

CONCLUSIONS:

Sociodemographic, psychosocial and mental-physical health risk factors were determinant for the onset of PD and GAD in the general adult population. These findings could be useful for developing preventive interventions in PD and GAD.

KEYWORDS:

Anxiety disorders; Generalised anxiety disorder; Panic disorder; Risk factors; Systematic review

PMID:
25089514
DOI:
10.1016/j.jad.2014.06.021
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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