Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Nat Med. 2014 Sep;20(9):1001-8. doi: 10.1038/nm.3616. Epub 2014 Aug 3.

Obesity- and aging-induced excess of central transforming growth factor-β potentiates diabetic development via an RNA stress response.

Author information

1
1] Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA. [2] Diabetes Research Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA. [3] Institute of Aging, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA. [4].
2
1] Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA. [2] Diabetes Research Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA. [3] Institute of Aging, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA.

Abstract

The brain, in particular the hypothalamus, plays a role in regulating glucose homeostasis; however, it remains unclear whether this organ is causally and etiologically involved in the development of diabetes. Here, we found that hypothalamic transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) production is excessive under conditions of not only obesity but also aging, which are two general etiological factors of type 2 diabetes. Pharmacological and genetic approaches revealed that central TGF-β excess caused hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance independent of a change in body weight. Further, using cell-specific genetic analyses in vivo, we found that astrocytes and proopiomelanocortin neurons are responsible for the production and prodiabetic effect of central TGF-β, respectively. Mechanistically, TGF-β excess induced a hypothalamic RNA stress response, resulting in accelerated mRNA decay of IκBα, an inhibitor of proinflammatory nuclear factor-κB. These results reveal an atypical, mRNA metabolism-driven hypothalamic nuclear factor-κB activation, a mechanism that links obesity as well as aging to hypothalamic inflammation and ultimately to type 2 diabetes.

PMID:
25086906
PMCID:
PMC4167789
DOI:
10.1038/nm.3616
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Nature Publishing Group Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center